If it is hard to manipulate important individuals who are in the decision-making circle, the spy can manipulate their target country or organization through the public manipulation.
This general public control has been centered by the media maneuver, indicating this methodology is also an extension of the antipersonnel operation. When the spy acquires influential individuals as assets, they can control an information flow of the society, which eventually pressurizes to alter the government decision.
However, the spy can manipulate an information directly through the internet control in the modern world. In this case, they can manipulate some of the frequently used application to let people more reachable to their selected information.
They can also enhance this effectiveness by mixing up those two methodologies through the media and internet. The media can be controlled not just by their asset, but also a flood of selected information. There are many ways to combine of those plots, adjusted to their final goal.
The riot and agitation are one of the spy operation to control the general public, which is not frequent but definitely executed many times even in the current world. Those can be generated spontaneously, but the severe uprising is basically plotted by a specific group. It might be created by the anti-government organization, but often operated by the intelligence officers.
A large-scale demonstration can be generated naturally as an appearance of the pure protest of each participant, but it is likely advanced to the riot when a specific group entices the whole. The spy is one of the main specific group that they have accumulated this capability for a long time, even for the case that the riot starts from the internet network to the real.
Those operations require a money to spend as it is necessary to spend a time and money to frame an important individual but also it is necessary to spend a money for the large-scale mobilization. In this sense, it is important how to secure the money, which defines a capability of the intelligence capacity.